Genetic Mutation

A mutation is a change in the structure or amount of an organisms genetic material. The individual affected is called a mutant There are four main types of genetic mutations that occur in humans.
 
Substitution
 
This is when one base in the DNA is substituted with another. this is a "point mutation" as only one amino acid in the chain is affected although this dramatically changes the protein formed and can have large effects such as producing haemoglobin s and suffering from sickle cell anaemia
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Inversion
This is when two adjacent bases in the DNA strand swap. This is also a "point mutation" but just like substitution it can have drastic effects on an individual
 
Deletion
   This is when one base in the DNA strand is removed or "deleted" altogether. This is called a "frameshift" as it affects all the other amino acids transcribed after the mutation. This can cause non-functional protiens that are completely different from the ones intended and can cause massive problems such as Phenylketonuria.
 
 
Insertion
 
 
This is when an extra base is added somewhere along the DNA strand and is also a "frameshift" mutation. Just like deletion it can cause big problems.
 
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